دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران
Iran University of Medical Sciences

Cigarette and Hookah Smoking in Adolescent Students using World Health Organization Questionnaire Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS): A Pilot Study in Varamin City, Iran in ۲۰۱۶

 | تاریخ ارسال: 1399/8/17 | 

Cigarette and Hookah Smoking in Adolescent Students using World Health Organization Questionnaire Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS): A Pilot Study in Varamin City, Iran in ۲۰۱۶

http://journal.waocp.org/article_۸۹۳۰۱.html

Masjedi, M., Ainy, E., Zayeri, F., Paydar, R. (۲۰۲۰). Cigarette and Hookah Smoking in Adolescent Students using World Health Organization Questionnaire Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS): A Pilot Study in Varamin City, Iran in ۲۰۱۶. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, ۲۱(۱۰), ۳۰۳۳-۳۰۳۷. 


Abstract

Background and Objectives: Clues show that a large number of toxic agents, including carcinogenic, heavy metals, other particles, and high levels of nicotine, are effectively delivered through cigarette and hookah smoking. A pilot study was carried out in Varamin city, Iran in ۲۰۱۶ aimed to determine status of cigarette and hookah smoking in adolescent students using, Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) questionnaire. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study. At the first, of ۶۳ Varamin city schools’ using cluster sampling, ۴۸ schools were considered as primary clusters and ۴ schools were selected randomly as sample clusters and students with ۷, ۸ and ۹ years of education were studied. The total number of registered students was ۱,۱۰۸ and ۱,۰۷۵ responded to the study questionnaire. The main tool for collecting information used in this study was the GYTS questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization, was completed by subjects. Results: Totally, ۴۷۹ (۴۴.۶%) students were boys and ۵۹۶ (۵۵.۴%) were girls. Of ۱,۰۷۵ subjects the number of students at ۷, ۸ and ۹ years education was ۳۶۹ (۳۴.۳%), ۳۶۲ (۳۳.۷%) and ۳۴۴ (۳۲.۰%) respectively. The cigarette and hookah smoking using experience among the population was ۹.۲% and ۲۵.۵ respectively. Regarding the averages of the total score, although students have a relatively good attitude and specially behavioral intention (۷۲% and ۸۸% of the total score respectively), but only ۴۷% of the total knowledge score by boys and ۵۱% by girls, shows the average level of students’ awareness related the undesirable effects of smoking. Conclusions: Considering that one out of four students experienced cigarette and hookah smoking. Nearly half of the
students are exposed to cigarette smoke at home or outdoors. The state of cigarette and hookah smoking in the country is alarming among school students

 
Keywords: GYTS questionnaire, ۷, ۸ and ۹ years of education- student- middle school- knowledge-behavioral intention
 

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Use of toenail-bounded heavy metals to characterize occupational exposure and oxidative stress in workers of waterpipe/cigarette cafés

 | تاریخ ارسال: 1399/8/12 | 

Use of toenail-bounded heavy metals to characterize occupational exposure and oxidative stress in workers of waterpipe/cigarette cafés
 

https://doi.org/۱۰.۱۰۰۷/s۱۰۶۵۳-۰۲۰-۰۰۷۵۱-۸
 

Masjedi, M.R., Dobaradaran, S., Keshmiri, S. et al. Use of toenail-bounded heavy metals to characterize occupational exposure and oxidative stress in workers of waterpipe/cigarette cafés. Environ Geochem Health ۲۰۲۰

  
 

Abstract

Tobacco smoke is known for releasing metals in indoor air of waterpipe/cigarette cafés. However, the worker exposure to metals, and its association with oxidative stress in these cafés are still unclear. To this end, ۵۴ workers and ۳۸ customers from waterpipe/cigarette cafés (the exposed group), ۳۰ workers from non-smoking cafés (the control group ۱ (CG_۱)) and ۳۲ individuals from the general population (the control group ۲ (CG_۲)) were selected and toenails samples were then taken from them. Our findings revealed a significant difference in terms of toenail-bounded metal levels between the exposure and control groups (CG_۱ and CG_۲) (Mann–Whitney U test, Pvalue < ۰.۰۵). This study has also indicated that "type of tobacco" could be considered as a predictor for toenail-bounded heavy metals. Furthermore, our research’s results suggest that toenail-bounded heavy metals are positively and significantly correlated with urinary levels of ۸- hydroxy-۲′-deoxyguanosine (۸-OHdG, as a biomarker for the degradation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oxidative stress). Therefore, it can be concluded that workers of waterpipe/cigarette cafés are at high risks of adverse health of DNA oxidative degradation

Keywords: smoking, water pipe, cigarette, heavy metal, toenail
 

 


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Implementing Prevention against Tobacco Dependence (PAD) ”Toward the Tobacco-Free Schools, Neighborhoods, and Cities": Study Protocol

 | تاریخ ارسال: 1399/7/15 | 

Implementing Prevention against Tobacco Dependence (PAD) ”Toward the Tobacco-Free Schools, Neighborhoods, and Cities": Study Protocol


Masjedi, M., Ghaffari, S., Roshanfekr, P., Bahrami Hessari, M., Hamzehali, S., Mehrjardi, A. A., ... & Shahsavan, H. (۲۰۲۰). Implementing Prevention against Tobacco Dependence (PAD)” Toward the Tobacco-Free Schools, Neighborhoods, and Cities": Study Protocol. Journal of Research in Health Sciences.

http://journals.umsha.ac.ir/index.php/JRHS/article/view/۵۵۸۱

Abstract

Introduction: Although tobacco consumption in Iran has decreased in recent years, in ۲۰۱۰, the exposure to cigarette smoke was the fifth leading risk factor for death in Iran. This article is presenting the protocol for the prevention against tobacco dependence (PAD) project, an initiative planned and implemented by the Iranian Anti-Tobacco Association (IATA) of Iran in the city of Varamin.

Study design: A prospective cohort study.

Methods: This project is carried out based on a participatory community-oriented approach and an action research method. It includes four inter-related, prospective studies phases; pilot, tobacco-free school (TFS), tobacco-free neighborhood (TFN), and tobacco-free city (TFS). The measuring tools for each phase were designed primarily using CDC and WHO guidelines and preliminary details were identified. Each phase is a combination of different methods (including systematic observation, questionnaire, heuristic interview, and structured interview). The studies will examine twelve goals and meet ۹ project objectives in a comprehensive evaluation of ongoing progress with TFS, TFN, and TFC.

Discussion: This project seeks to achieve indicators of tobacco-free schools, neighborhoods, and cities through direct and indirect education of all the target groups in the community. Participation of stakeholders and supporters in problem-solving can increase the effectiveness and influence of the project. The outcomes of the first two phases will be expanded to the wider settings.

Keywords: Tobacco; Smoking Prevention; Schools; Public Health; Primary Prevention; Urban Health


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Prevalence of smoking and its association with health-related behaviours among Iranian university students: a large-scale study

 | تاریخ ارسال: 1399/7/15 | 

Prevalence of smoking and its association with health-related behaviours among Iranian university students: a large-scale study


Mansouri, M., Sadeghi, O., Roshanfekr, P., Sharifi, F., Varmaghani, M., Yaghubi, H., ... & Masjedi, M. R. (۲۰۲۰). Prevalence of smoking and its association with health-related behaviours among Iranian university students: a large-scale study. East Mediterr Health J۲۶.

https://doi.org/۱۰.۲۶۷۱۹/emhj.۰۵۳
 

Abstract

Background: The prevalence of smoking and contributing factors among Iranian university students has been paid little attention.

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of smoking in Iranian university students and its association with health-related behaviours.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of ۸۲ ۸۰۶ Iranian university students admitted in ۲۰۱۲–۲۰۱۳. Information on demographic characteristics and health-related behaviours, including physical activity, sleep pattern, use of electronic devices and dietary habits, were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Weight and height were measured using a standard protocol and body mass index calculated. Smokers were defined as students who smoked ≥ ۱ cigarette per week.

Results: Smoking was prevalent among ۶.۰% of university students (males ۶.۶%, females ۵.۶%). Moderate physical activity was inversely associated with odds of smoking. A significant positive association was also found between obesity and odds of being a smoker. Higher intake of fruits and dairy products were associated with lower odds of smoking. However, intake of vegetables, fast foods and carbonated beverages was positively associated with smoking. Breakfast consumption was also associated with greater odds of being a smoker.

Conclusions: Demographic characteristics and health-related behaviours, including marital status, occupation, economic status, sleep pattern, physical activity, use of electronic devices and dietary intake, were significantly associated with smoking.

Keywords: smoking prevalence, health-related behaviours, university students, Iran


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Characteristics of Iranian hookah users aged ۱۵ years and older, primary report

 | تاریخ ارسال: 1399/7/15 | 

Characteristics of Iranian hookah users aged ۱۵ years and older, primary report


Hessami, Z., Masjedi, M. R., Sharifi, H., Jamaati, H., & Emami, H. (۲۰۱۶). Characteristics of Iranian hookah users aged ۱۵ years and older, primary report.

https://doi.org/۱۰.۱۱۸۳/۱۳۹۹۳۰۰۳.congress-۲۰۱۶.PA۴۶۰۶
 

Abstract

Introduction and objectives: Despite of increasing prevalence of Hookah smoking in Iran , there is no precise information about the consumption and consumers. We evaluated characteristics of current hookah users in Iran.

Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out through stratified multi-stage cluster sampling in five districts of Tehran and the specifications of Hookah users were studied.

Findings: ۳۱۶ current Hookah smokers were studied. ۴۹.۲% of them were in the age group of ۲۵-۳۹ years. ۴۲.۷% of women and ۲۵.۱% of men had academic education. ۶۸% of them consumed their first Hookah with their friends and the most common place for the first Hookah use was in their parties. ۵۳.۳% of them use Hookah in their own homes. ۱۵.۴% of women used Hookah in traditional restaurants and ۱۰۰ men (۴۷.۴%) used it in parks and teahouses. A large number of participants consumed flavored tobacco. The mean age of starting Hookah smoking was ۲۱.۳±۶.۴ years. ۵۹.۴% of participants have no desire to quit Hookah smoking. ۵۲.۶% of participants were also current cigarette smokers. Being a male (OR: ۲.۲۴) and Hookah smoking in teahouse (OR: ۱۰.۶) or home (OR: ۹.۶) were positively associated with daily Hookah consumption.

Conclusion: It is a report on water-pipe smoker&#۳۹;s characteristics in an Iranian population. According to that, Hookah smokers were mostly young adults and educated. They had mostly tendency to use Hookah at home with friends or in the teahouse. Most of them consumed fruit flavored tobacco and they had no desire to quit Hookah smoking.Further studies in this field are needed and just like anti-smoking activities it is necessary to consider Hookah consumption in tobacco control programs.


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Domestic Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in Children

 | تاریخ ارسال: 1399/7/15 | 

Domestic Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in Children <۱۰ Years: Findings From Iran’s Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS-۲۰۱۰)


Payam Roshanfekr, Sonia Ghaffari, Gita Shafiee, Salah Eddin Karimi, Mehdi Varmaghani, Farshad Sharifi & Mohammad Reza Masjedi (۲۰۲۰) Domestic Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in Children <۱۰ Years: Findings From Iran’s Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS-۲۰۱۰), Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, ۲۸:۶, ۵۰۵-۵۱۱.

https://doi.org/۱۰.۱۰۸۰/۱۰۶۷۸۲۸X.۲۰۲۰.۱۷۸۹۵۲۸
 

Abstract

Background: Secondhand smoking (SHS) is one of the important risk factors among non-communicable diseases and is responsible for more than ۱% of the total burden of diseases among under five-year-old children. The prevalence of SHS among children has not been investigated both at national and provincial levels in Iran. This study was carried out to address this issue at national and provincial levels. 
Method: Iran’s Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS) in ۲۰۱۰ was a multi-stage stratified cluster-random cross-sectional nationwide study over all provinces with a sample representing general population at district levels of provinces. Analyses were performed on the data of the participants who were <۱۰ years. Data were collected by ۲۴۰ trained teams over ۳۱ provinces of Iran using standard questionnaires. Two questions about being exposed to smoking through at least one household member and number of exposure days per week were asked of the participants. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression model were utilized to assess the associated factors with SHS among children. 
Results: Out of a total of ۱۱۱,۸۲۵ participants in IrMIDHS, ۱۸,۷۱۲ of the participants were under ۱۰ years old. About ۵۲.۴۸% (۵۰.۸۲%–۵۲.۱۴%) were male and ۶۱.۴۲% (۵۵.۴۲%–۶۷.۱۱%) resided in urban regions. Crude prevalence of SHS at this age group at national levels was ۲۵.۵۱% (۲۲.۴۸%–۲۸.۹۳%). After age adjustment according to the World Health Organization (WHO) population, the prevalence of secondhand smoking (SHS) at the national level was ۲۵.۵۹% (۲۲.۵۶%–۲۸.۸۹%). There was no significant difference between male and female participants (۲۵.۷۰% versus ۲۵.۴۸% in male and female, respectively). The highest standardized prevalence of SHS was reported from Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, West Azerbaijan, and Hamadan provinces (۴۴.۷%, ۴۳.۹%, and ۳۹.۱%, respectively). The lowest standardized prevalence belonged to Gilan (۱۲.۸%), Golestan (۱۴.۷%), and Ilam (۱۴.۸%) provinces. Concerning the duration of exposure to SHS, ۷۷.۸% of those with history of exposure to smoke reported everyday exposure. In the multivariable model, SHS was positively associated with residence in rural areas (odds ratio = ۱.۳۱; ۹۵% confidence interval ۱.۱۴–۱.۵۱) and age (odds ratio = ۱.۱۵; ۹۵% confidence interval ۱.۰۳–۱.۲۸). 
Conclusion: SHS was relatively prevalent in ۲۰۱۰ among children <۱۰ years of age in Iran. This rate was very different over the provinces. Although the prevalence of SHS among Iranian kids was found to be lower than its prevalence worldwide, through attention to easily preventable exposure to SHS along with proper legislation and cultural reforms, exposure to SHS could be markedly curbed and reduced.


Keywords: childrenIranprevalencesecondhand smokingSHS


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Domestic Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in Children

 | تاریخ ارسال: 1399/7/15 | 

Domestic Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in Children


Varmaghani, M., Masjedi, M. R., Sharifi, F., Mansouri, M., Shafiee, G., & Roshanfekr, P. (۲۰۱۸). Domestic Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in Children.

https://doi.org/۱۰.۱۱۸۳/۱۳۹۹۳۰۰۳.congress-۲۰۱۸.PA۴۵۳۶
 

Abstract

Backgrounds: This study was carried out to address this gap of knowledge at national and provincial levels.

Methods: Iran&#۳۹;s Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS) ۲۰۱۰ was a multi-stage stratified cluster-random cross-sectional national study over all provinces with a sample that representative of general population at district levels of provinces. Analyses were performed on data of the participants who were < ۱۰ years. Data were collected by ۲۴۰ trained teams over ۳۱ provinces of Iran using standard questionnaire. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression model were utilized to assess the associated factors with second hand smoking among children.

Results: ۵۲.۴۸% (۵۰.۸۲% – ۵۲.۱۴%) were male. ۶۱.۴۲% (۵۵.۴۲ – ۶۷.۱۱%) were resident of urban regions. After adjustment for WHO population, the standardized prevalence of second hand smoking at national level was ۲۵.۵۹% (۲۲.۵۶% – ۲۸.۸۹%). There was no difference in term of second hand smoking between male and female (۲۵.۷۰% vs. ۲۵.۴۸ in male and female retrospectively). The highest standardized prevalence was reported from Chaharmahal & Bakhtiyari, west Azerbaijan, and Hamadan (۴۴.۷%, ۴۳.۸۶%, and ۳۹.۰۷%, respectively. In multivariable model, second hand smoking were positively associated with residency in rural area (Odds Ratio= ۱.۲۵; ۹۵% CI ۱.۰۹ – ۱.rs. ۴۳).

Conclusion: Whiles the prevalence of second hand smoking among children of Iran were lower the worldwide prevalence, with attention to easy preventive expose to second hand smoking, it should with legislation and changing of culture this rate could decrease.


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Air pollutants associated with smoking in indoor/outdoor of waterpipe cafés in Tehran, Iran: Concentrations, affecting factors and health risk assessment

 | تاریخ ارسال: 1399/7/15 | 

Air pollutants associated with smoking in indoor/outdoor of waterpipe cafés in Tehran, Iran: Concentrations, affecting factors and health risk assessment

Masjedi, M.R., Taghizadeh, F., Hamzehali, S. et al. Air pollutants associated with smoking in indoor/outdoor of waterpipe cafés in Tehran, Iran: Concentrations, affecting factors and health risk assessment. Sci Rep ۹, ۳۱۱۰ (۲۰۱۹). https://doi.org/۱۰.۱۰۳۸/s۴۱۵۹۸-۰۱۹-۳۹۶۸۴-۳


https://doi.org/۱۰.۱۰۳۸/s۴۱۵۹۸-۰۱۹-۳۹۶۸۴-۳
 

Abstract

Despite increasingly growth in waterpipe smoking in Tehran, so far no study has been conducted on the air quality of the waterpipe and cigarette cafés. Thirty-six cafés were selected and the concentration of three pollutants including formaldehyde, carbon monoxide and nicotine were measured in both indoor and outdoor air of cafés two times (week-day and weekend’s session). Air sampling was performed for ۱۸۰ min for each pollutant. It was observed that the concentration of pollutants inside the cafés was higher during weekend session (with a higher number of “active waterpipe heads”) compared with findings during the week-day sessions. Furthermore, the concentration of pollutants in the indoor air of the cafés was significantly higher than that of the outdoors (p < ۰.۰۵). According to path analysis, the number of “active waterpipe heads” had the maximum impact on generation of pollutants inside the cafés, followed by the type of tobacco as the second influential factor. The average of lifetime cancer risk (LTCR) resulted by formaldehyde exposure through inhalation in waterpipe (WS), cigarette (CS), waterpipe and cigarette (WCS) and none-smoking (NS) cafés in week-day and weekend sessions were estimated to be ۱۱۱ × ۱۰−۵ and ۶۱.۲ × ۱۰−۵, ۳۳.۷ × ۱۰−۵ and ۳۹.۴ × ۱۰−۵, ۲۷۱ × ۱۰−۵ and ۳۲۲ × ۱۰−۵, and ۴.۸۰ × ۱۰−۵ and ۵.۹۰ × ۱۰−۵, respectively, which exceed the limit value by the U.S.EPA and WHO. The concentration of pollutants in the indoor air of smoking cafés in Tehran is significantly high, such that it can pose serious risks for the health of both personnel and customers. Therefore, decision makers are expected to enact applicable and strict policies so as to abate this public health risk.


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Burden of obstructive lung disease study in Iran: First report of the prevalence and risk factors of copd in five provinces

 | تاریخ ارسال: 1399/7/15 | 

Burden of obstructive lung disease study in Iran: First report of the prevalence and risk factors of copd in five provinces

Sharifi H, Ghanei M, Jamaati H, Masjedi MR, Aarabi M, Sharifpour A, Radmand G, Buist A S. Burden of obstructive lung disease study in Iran: First report of the prevalence and risk factors of copd in five provinces. Lung India ۲۰۱۹;۳۶:۱۴-۹

https://dx.doi.org/۱۰.۴۱۰۳%۲Flungindia.lungindia_۱۲۹_۱۸
 

Abstract

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health burden that affects ۳۰۰ million people worldwide. Globally, COPD was reported as the fourth leading cause of death in ۲۰۰۴ and is projected to occupy the third position in ۲۰۳۰. The goal of the present project is to describe the prevalence and determine the causes and risk factors of COPD in five provinces of Iran. 
Methods: This study followed a stratified cluster sampling strategy with proportional allocation within strata. The target population is all noninstitutionalized inhabitants, aged ۱۸ and over, who inhabit in different provinces in Iran in the year ۲۰۱۷. The stratification of the sample according to the ۳۱ provinces of Iran is incorporated in the sampling process. The core questionnaire was developed from preexisting validated questionnaires. The single most important outcome measure obtained as part of this protocol was spirometry before and after the administration of ۲۰۰ mg (two puffs) of salbutamol. 
Results: The most commonly reported respiratory symptoms were as follows: wheezing (N=۲۱۷, ۲۰.۴%, ۹۵% confidence interval [CI]: ۱۸%–۲۲.۸%), sputum production (N=۱۷۳, ۱۶.۵%, ۹۵% CI: ۱۴.۳%–۱۸.۸%), and dyspnea (N=۱۳۱, ۱۲.۳%, ۹۵% CI: ۱۰.۳%–۱۴.۳%). The overall COPD prevalence defined by the postbronchodilator spirometric Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria was ۴.۹%, higher in men (۶.۴%) than in women (۳.۹%). The prevalence of COPD was strongly dependent on smoking status, age, and sex. 
Conclusion: COPD is considered a preventable disease, and avoidance of exposure to major risk factors can prevent the vast majority of cases. The present study findings add to the literature on the prevalence of COPD in Iran and will help policy-makers, specialists, and all stakeholders to strategize and evaluate medical services required for reducing the prevalence of respiratory diseases. The data from our present study will serve as baseline information for future national and regional studies of COPD.

Keywords: Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Iran, prevalence


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Prevalence of smoking and its association with health-related behaviours among Iranian university students: a large-scale study

 | تاریخ ارسال: 1399/7/15 | 

Prevalence of smoking and its association with health-related behaviours among Iranian university students: a large-scale study

Mansouri, M., Sadeghi, O., Roshanfekr, P., Sharifi, F., Varmaghani, M., Yaghubi, H., ... & Masjedi, M. R. (۲۰۲۰). Prevalence of smoking and its association with health-related behaviours among Iranian university students: a large-scale study. East Mediterr Health J۲۶.

https://doi.org/۱۰.۲۶۷۱۹/emhj.۰۵۳

Abstract

Background: The prevalence of smoking and contributing factors among Iranian university students has been paid little attention.

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of smoking in Iranian university students and its association with health-related behaviours.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of ۸۲ ۸۰۶ Iranian university students admitted in ۲۰۱۲–۲۰۱۳. Information on demographic characteristics and health-related behaviours, including physical activity, sleep pattern, use of electronic devices and dietary habits, were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Weight and height were measured using a standard protocol and body mass index calculated. Smokers were defined as students who smoked ≥ ۱ cigarette per week.

Results: Smoking was prevalent among ۶.۰% of university students (males ۶.۶%, females ۵.۶%). Moderate physical activity was inversely associated with odds of smoking. A significant positive association was also found between obesity and odds of being a smoker. Higher intake of fruits and dairy products were associated with lower odds of smoking. However, intake of vegetables, fast foods and carbonated beverages was positively associated with smoking. Breakfast consumption was also associated with greater odds of being a smoker.

Conclusions: Demographic characteristics and health-related behaviours, including marital status, occupation, economic status, sleep pattern, physical activity, use of electronic devices and dietary intake, were significantly associated with smoking.

Keywords: smoking prevalence, health-related behaviours, university students, Iran


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Socio-economic contributors to current cigarette smoking among Iranian household heads: findings from a national household survey

 | تاریخ ارسال: 1399/7/15 | 

Socio-economic contributors to current cigarette smoking among Iranian household heads: findings from a national household survey


Masjedi, M. R., Roshanfekr, P., Naghdi, S., Higgs, P., Armoon, B., Ghaffari, S., & Ghiasvand, H. (۲۰۲۰). Socio-economic contributors to current cigarette smoking among Iranian household heads: findings from a national household survey. Journal of Substance Use۲۵(۲), ۲۱۷-۲۲۳.

https://doi.org/۱۰.۱۰۸۰/۱۴۶۵۹۸۹۱.۲۰۱۹.۱۶۷۵۷۸۸

ABSTRACT

Background: The first step in developing a series of appropriate interventions for controlling the epidemic of smoking is to scrutinize surveillance data to understand any contributing socio-economic factors. The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence rates and the socio-economic factors associated with cigarette smoking among Iranian household heads in ۲۰۱۶.

Methods: All data related to cigarette smoking were extracted from the Iranian Households’ Income Expenditure Survey (IHIES) by the Statistical Center of Iran (SCI). The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was calculated by gender, educational level, employment status, age, and marital status. Then, socio-economic factors associated with cigarette smoking were analyzed using a logistic regression.

Results: The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was ۱۷.۸% for male and ۶.۶% for female-headed households. Being aged ۳۷─۴۱ years, married, and having a primary school educational level had the highest prevalence for current cigarette smoking in the sample. Being female, unemployed, divorced showed a significant association with the likelihood of current cigarette smoking among household heads.

Conclusion: The positive association of current cigarette smoking across all economic levels was an unexpected finding. However, other socio-economic factors including current employment status and educational levels showed expected associations.


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Load characteristics, in vitro bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of PM۲.۵–bounded heavy metals in indoor air of waterpipe and/ or cigarette cafes compared to smoking-free cafes

 | تاریخ ارسال: 1399/7/15 | 

Load characteristics, in vitro bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of PM۲.۵–bounded heavy metals in indoor air of waterpipe and/ or cigarette cafes compared to smoking-free cafes


Masjedi, M. R., Taghizadeh, F., HamzehAli, S., Ghaffari, S., Ahmadi, E., Dobaradaran, S., ... & Arfaeinia, H. (۲۰۲۰). Load characteristics, in vitro bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of PM۲. ۵–bounded heavy metals in indoor air of waterpipe and/or cigarette cafes compared to smoking-free cafes. Environmental Pollutants and Bioavailability۳۲(۱), ۵۶-۶۷.

https://doi.org/۱۰.۱۰۸۰/۲۶۳۹۵۹۴۰.۲۰۲۰.۱۷۴۱۴۴۹


ABSTRACT

Samples of PM۲.۵ particulates were collected from indoor air of ۳۶ cafés, ۱۴ cafés in which only water pipe (WS) was used, eight in which only cigarette was smoked (CC), six in which both waterpipe and cigarette were smoked (WCC), and eight cafés in which no smoking occurred (SFC) in Tehran. After that, the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel(Ni), and chromium (Cr) was examined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) (GF ۵۰۰۰, Australia). The results indicated that the ƩMetal concentration (Mean ±SD) in WCC, WC, CC, and SFC cafés were ۱۱۱۸.۵±۵۰.۴۲, ۶۶۳.۶۴±۴۰.۷۹, ۴۲۵.۵۷±۱۷.۵۵, and ۷۹.۰۲±۵.۱۳ ng/m۳, respectively. The mean bioaccessibility of Pb, Cr, Ni, and Cd was obtained as ۳۹.۷, ۳۱.۴, ۷.۳۵, and ۷۴.۶%, respectively. The results of risk assessment indicated that exposure to heavy metals in the indoor air of smoking cafés of Tehran is considered high.


KEYWORDS: WaterpipecigarettePM۲.۵heavy metalrisk assessmentbioaccessibility


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